Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and presents with joint pain along with associated functional limitations. Other primary symptoms include stiffness and decreased range of motion of the affected joint.
One of the most common medical complaints in the United States, back pain affects a diverse demographic of patients and can have a number of different causes. The right treatment may depend on the cause of pain, severity, the patient’s age, and many other factors.
Neck pain is a common medical complaint, and there are a variety of causes and treatments to alleviate symptoms. Though neck pain is often due to a trauma (like whiplash during a car accident), many conditions cause persistent pain and should be treated by a pain management specialist.
Shoulder pain, a common musculoskeletal condition, can be caused by various conditions such as referred pain from the neck or intrinsic disorders in the shoulder itself. Tendons, ligaments, muscles and glenohumeral articular structures can all be involved with shoulder pain.
Knee pain is one of the leading causes for doctor visits. The knee is the largest joint in the human body and is comprised of a complex hinge that twists and rotates while supporting the entire body weight. As more people are exercising, the number of knee problems is also on the rise. Chronic knee pain affects 25% of adults and can limit the function and quality of life for many.
Nearly half of cancer patients experience pain. Pain may develop due to the cancer itself or as a side effect from treatment such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy and surgeries. The goal of pain management is to improve quality of life through a variety of modalities like medications, nerve blocks, and physical therapies.
One of the most common medical complaints, a headache is a feeling of pain or discomfort localized in the head. The pain may originate in the head itself, or it may also be referred pain from the neck or upper back. There are many different types of headaches, and the appropriate treatment may vary depending on the patient and the cause of the headache.
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)
CRPS is a chronic pain condition that results from damage or malfunction of the peripheral and/or central nervous system. CRPS is characterized by prolonged or excessive pain as well as swelling, muscle atrophy and changes in skin color and temperature. This pain syndrome usually affects an arm or a leg and may develop after an injury, surgery, stroke or heart attack. CRPS is divided into two types:
CRPS Type I – Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy:
CRPS Type I was previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy. This type occurs after an illness or injury that is not directly associated with a nerve injury. For example, fractures, burn injuries, surgery, and infections can lead to CRPS Type I.
CRPS Type II – Causalgia:
CRPS Type II or previously known as causaugia is CRPS that occurs after distinct nerve injury.
Pain after is surgery is common and in most cases, to be expected. There are many effective medications to keep post-surgical pain under control but early implementation and preparation are crucial for favorable outcomes. Well-controlled pain can speed recovery, decrease risk of infections and prevent long-term problems.
Pain from physical injury or trauma is very common and can be debilitating if not well-controlled. Multiple modalities like analgesic medications, therapies and injections may be used to treat post-traumatic pain. Early recognition and proper treatment are essential to good outcomes and improved healing from trauma.
Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN)
Shingles arises from the reactivation of the chickenpox virus or varicella zoster. While this virus normally remains dormant within the nerves, stress or injury may trigger the virus to travel down nerve fibers to cause a very painful rash. In most cases, once the rash resolves, the pain will also subside. In 10-15% of people however, pain remains long after the rash. This residual pain after a shingles outbreak is known as post-herpetic neuralgia or PHN. There are many medications that can help mitigate the symptoms of PHN, however treatment should be individualized and started early.